Protein Function

Protein function helps during growth, maintenance, and building enzymes, hormones, and immunity. Therefore, the protein is often referred to as builder substances. Proteins are divided by two, ie, derived from animal and vegetable. Protein requirements in each individual is different. Protein-containing food sources include fish, eggs, meat, dairy, and nuts.

Not all parents know how many actually fit the required dose of the child. Since the excess nutrients are also not good for growing children.

* 0-6 months of age, weight 6 kg, the AKP was 9 grams. At the age of 7-11 months with weight 8.5 kg PPA required 15 g. Ages 1-3 years with 12 kg weight was 19 g. PPA Ages 4-6 years with BB 18 kg, the AKP was 22 g. 7-9 years of age, weight 25 kg, the AKP was 29 g. Aged 10-12 years (men), weight 35 kg, the AKP was 40 g. age 13-15 years, weight 46 kg PPA was 47 g. and, ages 16-18 years, weight 55 kg PPA took 56 g.
* Age, 10-12 (daughter), weight 31 kg, 38 g PPA Age 13-15 years, weight 48 kg, 49 g PPA While the age of 16-18 years, weight 50 kg, 51 g PPA.

Protein function:
1. as the enzyme
Almost all biological reactions accelerated or assisted by micro-molecule compound specific; from the very simple reaction such as reaction to transport carbon dioxide to very complex such as replication kromosom.Hampir katalisatik all enzymes showed a remarkable power and generally accelerate the reaction

2. Conveyance and storage equipment
Many small molecules with molecular weight as well as a few ions can be transported or moved by certain proteins.

3. regulating the movement
Protein is the main component of meat, muscle movement occurs because of the two protein molecules that play a role of actin and myosin

4. supporting mechanical
Strength and tear resistance due to skin and bones kalogen, an elliptic protein and easy to form fibers.

5. control growth
It works as a receptor protein that can interfere with the functioning of DNA that regulate the nature and character of the material

6. Media implus propagation neural
The protein has a function is usually a receptor, etc..

The total portion of energy that you should maintain is carbohydrates 46%, fat 42%, and protein 12%

Diet Therapy in Coroner Patients

Today heart disease and blood vessel becomes the no.1 killer in the world and the number of sufferers continues to grow. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that cardiovascular disease will be the biggest cause of deaths worldwide in 2020.

Heart disease is a disease that interferes with the vascular system, or more precisely attack the heart and veins, some examples such as the heart coronary heart disease, heart attack, high blood pressure, stroke, chest pain and diseases rheumatic heart.

Cardiovascular diseases (blood vessel), among others:
a. Atherosclerosis is a process in which a plaque (clot) which mainly consists of fat settles along the walls of the arteries. Most heart disease (such as coronary heart disease) caused by atherosclerosis, which include accumulation of plaque inside artery walls.

Some theories of the formation of atherosclerosis (heart disease):
i. Theory of a reaction to tissue damage that is the reaction of damage to endhotelium with the formation of deposits that are filled with substance – fatty substances and other substances.
ii. Monoclonal theory is the existence isoenzymes found in lesions and cell multiplication ploriferasi forming atheroma.
iii. Theory lysosomal lysosomal enzyme can abolish degradation of the cell – the cell to continue the formation of atheroma.

b. Myocardial infarction is another name of a heart attack, occurs when a portion of heart muscle not receiving enough oxygen, mainly due to coronary artery blockage. Because heart muscle cells, require oxygen for life, then the area of ??heart muscle that gets the blood supply that has the blockage will experience tissue death. Areas that experienced the death of heart muscle tissue is referred to as an area of ??infarction. Areas of infarction are not functioning normally, such as healthy heart muscle. This condition may be able to recover if blood flow to the infarct area to be repaired or blood vessel blockage of arteries that had corrected with surgery or drugs as early as possible. When too late, then the blocked coronary arteries can not be repaired anymore, so that tissue death is settled and will cause other complications such as congestive heart trouble. The heart is a powerful pump that is responsible drain blood to the vital tools throughout the body via a complex network of arteries and veins. It is therefore very important kept your heart and blood vessels remain in good condition.

c. Hopeless Heart Failure is a condition where the heart is not able to pump enough blood to tissues throughout the body needs. Networks that do not receive enough oxygen supply to meet their needs will be weakened, impaired function and even tissue death. Decreased ability to pump blood the heart can occur due to various causes, including myocardial infarction or atherosclerosis. In the event of failure of cardiac function, there will be barriers to the flow of blood in the blood pembuluh2. As a result, some blood will return to the heart, causing congestion and increased pressure within the circuit or circuits pulmonary and systemic. Symptoms and signs as follows:
– Shortness of breath especially during physical activity, but when severe, shortness may occur even at rest.
– Swelling of the liver, stomach and legs due to fluid deposits.

d. Coronary heart disease is narrowing / blockage (arteriosclerosis) coronary arteries caused by the buildup of fatty substances (cholesterol, triglycerides) are more and more and accumulate beneath the innermost layer (endothelium) of the artery wall.

e. Hypertension is high blood pressure effects on the cardiovascular system may increase the risk of damage to the heart, kidneys, eyes and even the brain. High blood pressure can lead to uncontrolled heart trouble, kidney failure, blindness and stroke.

Below are some diet that you could apply:
1. Drinking three glasses of orange juice every day. This can increase HDL by 21%, within four weeks. According to Elzbieta Kurowska, Ph.D. from the University of Westrn Ontario, flovonoid content, can be called hesperidin in orange juice which contribute to the increased levels of HDL (Budiyanto, 2002).
2. Avoid excessive stress. Stress can cause elevated levels of the hormone epinephrine resulting in increased blood pressure and heart rate making it easier to damage to blood vessel walls.
3. Avoid unhealthy lifestyle. Unhealthy lifestyles can lead to diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol and obesity, these factors are the cause of heart disease.
4. Consuming neutriceutical / herbs of choice. Such as Omega 3, which proved able to suppress LDL / bad cholesterol, as well as Spirulina which contains antioxidants and carotenoids in high amounts. Antioxidants prevent plaque in blood vessels caused by free radical oxidation.

And of course the last one is sport activities, jogging or running are proven to be the cheapest yet effective exercise on dealing your weight issues and heart disease.

Diet Therapy for person with Obesity

Obesity or overweight is a physiological condition where excess fat is stored in body tissues. Someone said to obesity when weight loss exceeded 10% of ideal body weight. Obesity is a problem since time immemorial. This situation is one of the longest metabolic abnormalities recorded in a history as seen on a clay sculpture that dates back to approximately 22,000 BC. The statue depicts an obese middle-aged woman. Obesity and still always recorded throughout history, from the time of ancient Egypt and Greece, and even even today remains a problem, especially in terms of its treatment.

Obesity raises a variety of effects, both in terms of psychosocial and medical problems. People who are obese have a lot of difficulty in performing daily physical activity and obese people who took out the daily cost for food and clothing which are larger and can also have issues in the relationship of husband and wife and small children are often found on self-identification issues. In medical point of view, diseases such as cholesterol level increases, and heart disease are some examples that could cause by obesity. Some resources giving numerous program and good results as well such as you could found in plexus slim directory. Okay, lets have a look at diet therapy for person with obesity.

In an effort to prevent and treat obesity growth, necessary knowledge about the causes of excess fat in the body. There are few businesses that can be done to reduce the occurrence of obesity, namely:
1. sport
2. Reduce consumption of fat
3. Consume more protein
4. Consume lots of fiber foods.

In general, the treatment of obesity can be done through:
1. Special diet that is low-calorie diet, where there are foods rich in fiber and low in fat, where the fiber-rich foods will cause gastric high emptlyng (durable in the stomach), binds to fat or cholesterol, transit time (time to live in the intestines) low and resulted in the old sense of satiety.
2. Physical exercise, which is very effective for weight loss, when accompanied by restrictions on caloric intake.
3. Changing dietary behaviors which can be done by changing induce an appetite by stimulating the metabolic state of anorexia is accompanied by mobilization of lipids.
4. surgery
5. Farma kologik
Treatment of obesity aim to lose weight or maintain normal weight. Generally, target weight loss is recommended in the first phase is 10 percent of body weight within six months. Weight loss is recommended 0.5 -1 kg per week. Excessive weight loss is not recommended because it generally does not last long.

The recommended dietary therapy is low-calorie diet. The amount of energy given 500-1000 fewer calories than the average energy intake per day. Decrease energy intake by 500-1000 calories per day will lose weight from 0.5 to 1 kg per week.

Low-calorie diet should be a kind – the kind of glut of high degree of food that can help people remain obedient. The selection of foods should be tailored to the type of food the patient before, only a limited amount of calories. The easiest way is to reduce the frequency of eating out or reduce the main meal snacks, especially dense in calories. Choosing foods low in fat and replace with high-fiber foods like fruits and vegetables. However, intake of vitamins and minerals should be safeguarded in order to meet daily needs.

Physical exercise in patients with obesity should be done in conjunction with low-calorie diet to increase fat burning, physical exercise helps maintain weight loss that are not easily rise again. Is the recommended exercise with moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes with a frequency of 3-5 times per week. Should also increase physical activity such as walking, house cleaning, and reduce sedentary lifestyle such as watching television and playing video games.

A balanced low-calorie diet with foods high in fiber is the main alternative in tackling obesity. Raw foods, like vegetables and fruits contain high fiber, especially water-soluble fiber types, such as pectin, musilase, and gum. The water-soluble fiber is able to provide satiety longer. The water-soluble fiber is capable of forming gels, but low in calories. This causes the volume of food in the stomach to be large (bulky voluminous) so that people feel full sooner. Another function of the soluble fiber in the small intestine is able to bind ampedu acid. Reduced bile acid will slow the intestinal absorption of fat. The presence of fibers also play small intestine mucosal lining that will increase the viscosity of food volume and slowing the absorption of glucose. As a result the body can be protected from excess calories.

Bacteria and Food Nutrition

Continuing last articles about people with AIDS and its nutrition, these article will discuss more specific about bacteria inside food that should be avoided by them.

When the AIDS virus damages or destroys the immune system, people become more susceptible to infection by bacteria and other food pathogens. For example, ordinary pneumonia caused by bacterial infection in the lungs, can occur in any individual, but more often occurs in people with AIDS. In addition, when pneumonia that strikes people with AIDS, it causes more severe illness and even more dangerous.

Some of these bacteria are:
The bacteria Salmonella is a bacterial disease-causing food is the most common. The bacteria are commonly found in raw meat (especially poultry) and can be found in eggs even before they crack open. Salmonellosis can affect anyone, but occurs almost 100 times more frequently in patients with AIDS compared with other diseases. Moreover, Salmonella infection, which occurs in people with AIDS, in fact more difficult to maintain and more likely to lead to serious complications.

Diseases of Campylobacter jejuni is also caused by bacteria that can sometimes be found in foods, especially raw poultry. This disease occurs about 35 times more frequently in AIDS compared with healthy people. Many people suffered food poisoning due to improper cooking poultry. Contamination of drinking water because raw milk can also be a source of Campylobacter infection.

Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes that can be found in various types of food. Listeria infections are more common in people with AIDS than healthy people. Listeria infections in AIDS patients is usually severe and often fatal. Listeria monocytogenes can be obtained from a variety of foods including unpasteurized cheeses and prepared foods such as hot dogs meat delivery.

Food must be handled safely at every stage from purchase to consumption. An important point is to transport perishable food purchased from stores to immediately secured in a storage area; directly cooked to destroy bacteria and other pathogens.

Nutrition for person with AIDS

People with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are susceptible to various kinds of infectious diseases including food pathogens. They have a higher risk than healthy people as individuals to cope with severe illness or death. Personal attention is required for food handling. The recommendations given here are designed to help prevent bacterial diseases of food.

At the time of people infected with HIV / AIDS, the immune system in the body will decrease. At that time, if there is malnutrition, then the immune system will go down and the greater the likelihood of disease.

Good nutrition means there is a good food intake, body weight maintained, and muscle tissue, as well mikronutriea status in the body remains in good condition. The result, can strengthen the immune system so it can fight HIV and other infections. Resistance to infection was increased, such as diarrhea, tuberculosis, and respiratory infections.

Insufficient dietary intake can cause mal-absorption, diarrhea, impaired metabolism and storage nutriea, resulting in deficiency nutriea. Next, this could encourage nutricy deficiency increases oxidative stress and lowered immune system. As a result, increased HIV replication and also increasing the chances of developing the disease, also morbidity.

In addition, people infected with HIV usually experience symptoms that affect the nutritional intake can result in malnutrition. Among others, anorexia or loss of appetite, diarrhea, fever, nausea and vomiting that often, fungal infections, and anemia. Therefore, people living with HIV has its own nutritional needs compared to healthy individuals.

Some foods that are caused by bacteria that can grow on food. Bacteria can infect humans when food is not feasible or not cook it cooked. Like many kinds of infections, persons with AIDS are at higher risk to get severe illness or death from this disease. Three types of bacteria that need to be specifically for people with AIDS: Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytogenes.

In the next article all of these three will be discussed more further.

Nutrient Food

You are what you eat. This old adage is still relevant. Consider that there are more examples due to wrong diet cause high blood pressure, heart disease, uric acid, and cholesterol.

All disease is caused by eating foods that contain excessive levels of fat. Therefore, examine food choices. Here are a variety of foods high in nutrients that are good for our health and able to resist illness.

The fruit is very popular and universal. Benefits of apples, among others, prevent cholesterol, reduce symptoms due to indigestion, and prevent excess fat. Eating two apples per day can reduce the pain due to arthritis, rheumatism, and gout (uric acid metabolism abnormalities in up to cause pain in joints).

This one fruit rich in beta carotene, is useful for curing infections and smooth the skin.

Those who like to eat avocado (avocado), continue this practice because the fruit is rich in vitamins A, B, C and E. This fruit contains potassium that are useful to neutralize the bad digestion. Avocados contain monounsaturated fat, or fat that is chemically so powerful that it can absorb additional hydrogen, but not as much as plural unsaturated fat or polyunsaturated fat. Avocados also produces a lot of collagen as beneficial to make skin look smooth and youthful. The fruit is also good for the circulatory system and be useful to increase fertility.

The fruit is most quickly absorbed by the digestive besides the taste is sweet and delicious. Therefore, wine is the main fruit provided in the patient wards of hospitals in the West. Wine beneficial relieve arthritis, rheumatism, and fatigue.

Source of potassium, zinc, iron, folic acid, calcium, vitamin B6, and fiber is useful for digestive system and menstruation. Athletes who need an instant supply of potassium is recommended to consume bananas.

The fruit is rich in vitamin C, iron, potassium, and beta carotene. The amount of iron in the fruit is very good to supplement a vegetarian diet. Meanwhile, the juice is useful to eradicate the bacteria and effectively to treat urinary tract infections and cystitis (bladder inflammation).

Contains lots of fiber, B vitamins, minerals, and vitamin C. The best potatoes for consumption is a boiled or baked. Because the rich nutrients – particularly potassium and fiber – potatoes good for skin health.

This dark green vegetable source of beta carotene, iron, and fiber making it useful for curing anemia and those who frequently feel exhausted. Broccoli is also known as anti-cancer when consumed along with cauliflower, radish, cabbage, spring greens, turnip (Chinese radish), and brusell spout.

In the world of cooking, garlic is always included. Arguably, every dish is delicious garlic flavor thanks to the contribution.
In addition to flavor and scent the dish, the garlic had always been known as one of the medicinal herbs that are effective and used by the doctors during the rule of the imperial dynasty in China to Europe.
Smelly garlic can prevent heart disease, high blood pressure, prevent blood clotting, causing heart attacks, fighting various infections, stomach disorders, and cancer prevention. Because of its efficacy, garlic dubbed King of Healing Plants.

Olive oil
Contains vitamin E, monounsaturated, fatty acids are beneficial to prevent cholesterol, stimulates the gall performance because it helps digest fat. Olive oil in the international marketing of olive oil is called the main ingredient in cooking community in the Mediterranean countries. Therefore, no wonder if the rare Mediterranean population of the diseased heart.

Everyday cooking ingredients is to protect and regulate the circulatory system, a powerful antibiotic, to help the healing disorders in the chest and abdomen, urinary tract infections, arthritis, rheumatism, gout, and scrape the fat in the blood.

Thick white fluid is useful for treating stomach disorders, such as constipation and diarrhea. The content of vitamin B and calcium suitable for those who are allergic to milk.

Milk and cheese
Rich in calcium, so good for health, but bad for patients with sinusitis and those with milk allergies. For migraine sufferers, it is not advisable to consume cheese, as well as skim milk, and semi-skimmed including children under five.

Foods – like pizza – which is not derived from our homeland has become a prestigious snack in large cities. Well, if the country of origin of Italian food is nutritious? Origin is not accompanied by fat and sauces, pasta quite nutritious, containing fiber, minerals, and vitamin B.

Protein Sources

Most proteins form large structures within the cell termasuklah as enzymes and respiratory pigments. Proteins are formed from units principles that are recognized as ASID acids. Proteins may define into two types of fibrous proteins namely that much depends on the secondary structure of this protein shapes where it may be repeated.

When the second form is the globular proteins (enzymes and antibodies) that a lot depends on the interaction-free structure that there are 20 kinds of amino ASID is used to form the polypeptide chain (protein) function, shape, size and type of proteins will be determined by the type, number and a sprinkling of acid acids contained in such structures. Naming a few amino acids called revenge condensation with the enactment characterized peptide bond formation and the formation of water molecules.

This naming will result in a peptide chain is more recognizable as a polypeptide chain with two ends having a different nature. At the end of which has a collection of amino acids recognized as the terminal N (amino) and ends that have a collection known as the terminal carboxyl N. grafting chain amino acids require high power and precision of the amino acid sequence in this chain also depends on the coordination between mRNA and tRNA.

Protein is a part of all living cells and is the largest part of the body after water. One fifth of the body proteins, half of whom are in the muscle, fifth in the bone and cartilage, the tenth in the skin, and the rest in other tissues, and body fluids. All enzymes, hormones, transport nutrients and blood, intra-cellular matrix and so is protein. Besides amino acids that form proteins act as precursors of most of the coenzymes, hormones, nucleic acids, and molecules essential for life. Proteins have unique functions that can not be digantika by other nutrients, namely to build and maintain cells and tissues.

Proteins are formed by using only a single polypeptide and is referred to as monomeric proteins formed by several polypeptide for example, hemoglobin is also recognizable as a multimeric protein. Most proteins are enzymes or subunits of enzymes. Other types of proteins play a role in structural or mechanical functions, such as proteins that form the stems and joints cytoskeleton. Proteins involved in the immune system (immune) as an antibody, the control system in the form of the hormone, as a storage component (the seeds) and also in nutrient transport. As one source of nutrients, proteins play a role as a source of amino acids for organisms that are not able to form these amino acids (heterotrophic).

Proteins discovered by Jons Jakob Berzelius in 1838. Biosynthesis of natural proteins with genetic expression. DNA carried the genetic code is transcribed into RNA, which acts as a template for translation is done ribosoma. Until this stage, the protein is still “raw”, are composed of amino acids proteinogenik. Through post-translational mechanisms, it becomes fully functional protein in biology.

In the life of the protein plays an important chemical processes in the body can run well because of the enzyme that serves as a biocatalyst. Besides hemoglobin in red blood beads or erythrocytes that functions as a carrier of oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body, is one type of protein. Similarly, substances that act against bacterial disease called antigens, also a protein.

Proteins from the food we eat everyday can be derived from animal and vegetable. Proteins derived from animal foods such as meat, fish, chicken, eggs, milk, and other so-called animal protein, whereas proteins derived from plants such as beans, tempeh, and tofu is called vegetable protein. Previously, animal protein is considered higher quality than plant protein balanced diet, because it contains amino acids that is more complete.

But the results of recent research proves that the quality of vegetable proteins can be as high quality animal protein, provided that the daily diet varied. Protein is needed for growth, development, muscle formation, the formation of red blood cells, the body’s defense against disease, enzymes and hormones, and synthesis of other body tissues. Proteins are digested into amino acids, which then formed the body of protein in muscles and other tissues. Proteins can serve as an energy source when carbohydrates are consumed as insufficient at the time of strict dieting or at the time of intensive physical exercise. Instead, approximately 15% of total calories consumed from protein.

Fat or Lipid: A Guide to understand the Obesity

Fat Sources

Fats, also called lipids, is a substance that is rich in energy, serves as the primary source of energy for the body’s metabolic processes. Fats that circulate in the body that is derived from two sources of food and production of liver, which can be stored in fat cells as energy reserves. The function of fat is as a source of energy, protective organ, cell formation, a source of essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins conveyances, conserve protein, give a sense of fullness and delicacy, as a lubricant, and maintain body temperature. Clinically, the fat that matters is:

There are four types of fat / lipid as described below:

Most of the fats and oils in nature consisting of 98-99% triglycerides. Triglyceride is an ester of glycerol. Triglycerides are formed from 3 fatty acids and glycerol. If there is a fatty acid with glycerol in the bond then called monoglycerides. Triglycerides are the main functions as an energy substance.

Cholesterol is a type of fat that is most known by the public. Cholesterol is a major component in the structure of cell membranes and is a major component of brain and nerve cells. Cholesterol is an intermediate material for the formation of a number of important components such as vitamin D (to establish & maintain healthy bones), sex hormones (eg Estrogen & Testosterone) and bile acids (for digestion). Formation of cholesterol in the body occurs primarily in the liver (50% of total synthesis) and the rest in the intestine, skin, and all the networks that have nucleated cells. The types of foods that contain lots of cholesterol include meat (beef and poultry), fish and dairy products. Foods derived from animal meat usually contain lots of cholesterol, but the foods derived from plants contain no cholesterol.

Lipid Plasma
In general, fats are not water soluble, which means also not soluble in blood plasma. So that fat can be transported into the bloodstream, the fat must be made soluble by means tying on proteins that are soluble in water. The bond between fats (cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids) with a protein called lipoproteins (from the Lipo = fat, and protein).

Fatty Acid
According to the presence or absence of double bonds contained fatty acids, the fatty acids can be divided into:
1. Saturated fatty acids (Cn H2NO2), saturated fatty acid (SFA)
Saturated fatty acids are fatty acids that have a single bond carbon ato (C) where masinh the individual atoms will bind to this C atom is H.contohnya: butyric acid (C4), kaproait acid (C6), kaprotat acid (C8) and capric acid (C10). Generally, until denagan capric acid (C10) this is fluid and lauric acid until the acid began to be solid lignoserat.

2. Monounsaturated fatty acid
Not a single saturated fatty acids are fatty acids which always contains a double bond 2 kehilangn an iron atom C with at least 2 atoms of H. For example burat Acid, Acid palmitoleat (C12), and oleic acid (C18) commonly found in many vegetable or animal fats.

3. Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) (Cn H2n) 2

Unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds of fatty acids merpakan lots containing more than one bond rangkap.Asam this fat will lose at least 4 atoms H.contohnya linoleic fatty acids, etc.

The function of fat is generally named as source of energy, raw materials hormone, helps transport fat-soluble vitamins, as an insulating material to temperature changes, as well as protective organs inside the body. One study has reported that experimental animals do not get sufficient amount of fat in the diet will experience growth retardation, and some have stopped growing and eventually die. The lack of fat in the diet will also cause the skin to become dry and scaly.

In the digestive tract, fats and oils will be long in the stomach compared with carbohydrates and proteins, as well as fat absorption process is slower than other elements. Therefore, foods that contain fat capable of providing a longer sense of satiety than foods with less or no fat.

One function is to supply the amount of fat energy, where one gram of fat contains 9 calories, while 1 gram of carbohydrate contains only 4 calories. Another function of fat is to help the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. In addition, fat is also a source of essential fatty acids that can not be produced by the body and must be supplied from food. The function of fat as raw material for hormone also affects the physiological processes in the body, such as the manufacture of sex hormones.

Body fat in fat tissue (adipose tissue) has the function as an insulator to help maintain body temperature, whereas in women may provide the typical feminine contours such as fat tissue in the buttocks and chest. In addition, body fat in fat tissue also acts as a cushion that protects organs such as eyes, kidneys and other organs.