Fats, also called lipids, is a substance that is rich in energy, serves as the primary source of energy for the body’s metabolic processes. Fats that circulate in the body that is derived from two sources of food and production of liver, which can be stored in fat cells as energy reserves. The function of fat is as a source of energy, protective organ, cell formation, a source of essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins conveyances, conserve protein, give a sense of fullness and delicacy, as a lubricant, and maintain body temperature. Clinically, the fat that matters is:
There are four types of fat / lipid as described below:
Most of the fats and oils in nature consisting of 98-99% triglycerides. Triglyceride is an ester of glycerol. Triglycerides are formed from 3 fatty acids and glycerol. If there is a fatty acid with glycerol in the bond then called monoglycerides. Triglycerides are the main functions as an energy substance.
Cholesterol is a type of fat that is most known by the public. Cholesterol is a major component in the structure of cell membranes and is a major component of brain and nerve cells. Cholesterol is an intermediate material for the formation of a number of important components such as vitamin D (to establish & maintain healthy bones), sex hormones (eg Estrogen & Testosterone) and bile acids (for digestion). Formation of cholesterol in the body occurs primarily in the liver (50% of total synthesis) and the rest in the intestine, skin, and all the networks that have nucleated cells. The types of foods that contain lots of cholesterol include meat (beef and poultry), fish and dairy products. Foods derived from animal meat usually contain lots of cholesterol, but the foods derived from plants contain no cholesterol.
In general, fats are not water soluble, which means also not soluble in blood plasma. So that fat can be transported into the bloodstream, the fat must be made soluble by means tying on proteins that are soluble in water. The bond between fats (cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids) with a protein called lipoproteins (from the Lipo = fat, and protein).
According to the presence or absence of double bonds contained fatty acids, the fatty acids can be divided into:
1. Saturated fatty acids (Cn H2NO2), saturated fatty acid (SFA)
Saturated fatty acids are fatty acids that have a single bond carbon ato (C) where masinh the individual atoms will bind to this C atom is H.contohnya: butyric acid (C4), kaproait acid (C6), kaprotat acid (C8) and capric acid (C10). Generally, until denagan capric acid (C10) this is fluid and lauric acid until the acid began to be solid lignoserat.
2. Monounsaturated fatty acid
Not a single saturated fatty acids are fatty acids which always contains a double bond 2 kehilangn an iron atom C with at least 2 atoms of H. For example burat Acid, Acid palmitoleat (C12), and oleic acid (C18) commonly found in many vegetable or animal fats.
3. Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) (Cn H2n) 2
Unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds of fatty acids merpakan lots containing more than one bond rangkap.Asam this fat will lose at least 4 atoms H.contohnya linoleic fatty acids, etc.
The function of fat is generally named as source of energy, raw materials hormone, helps transport fat-soluble vitamins, as an insulating material to temperature changes, as well as protective organs inside the body. One study has reported that experimental animals do not get sufficient amount of fat in the diet will experience growth retardation, and some have stopped growing and eventually die. The lack of fat in the diet will also cause the skin to become dry and scaly.
In the digestive tract, fats and oils will be long in the stomach compared with carbohydrates and proteins, as well as fat absorption process is slower than other elements. Therefore, foods that contain fat capable of providing a longer sense of satiety than foods with less or no fat.
One function is to supply the amount of fat energy, where one gram of fat contains 9 calories, while 1 gram of carbohydrate contains only 4 calories. Another function of fat is to help the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. In addition, fat is also a source of essential fatty acids that can not be produced by the body and must be supplied from food. The function of fat as raw material for hormone also affects the physiological processes in the body, such as the manufacture of sex hormones.
Body fat in fat tissue (adipose tissue) has the function as an insulator to help maintain body temperature, whereas in women may provide the typical feminine contours such as fat tissue in the buttocks and chest. In addition, body fat in fat tissue also acts as a cushion that protects organs such as eyes, kidneys and other organs.