Most proteins form large structures within the cell termasuklah as enzymes and respiratory pigments. Proteins are formed from units principles that are recognized as ASID acids. Proteins may define into two types of fibrous proteins namely that much depends on the secondary structure of this protein shapes where it may be repeated.
When the second form is the globular proteins (enzymes and antibodies) that a lot depends on the interaction-free structure that there are 20 kinds of amino ASID is used to form the polypeptide chain (protein) function, shape, size and type of proteins will be determined by the type, number and a sprinkling of acid acids contained in such structures. Naming a few amino acids called revenge condensation with the enactment characterized peptide bond formation and the formation of water molecules.
This naming will result in a peptide chain is more recognizable as a polypeptide chain with two ends having a different nature. At the end of which has a collection of amino acids recognized as the terminal N (amino) and ends that have a collection known as the terminal carboxyl N. grafting chain amino acids require high power and precision of the amino acid sequence in this chain also depends on the coordination between mRNA and tRNA.
Protein is a part of all living cells and is the largest part of the body after water. One fifth of the body proteins, half of whom are in the muscle, fifth in the bone and cartilage, the tenth in the skin, and the rest in other tissues, and body fluids. All enzymes, hormones, transport nutrients and blood, intra-cellular matrix and so is protein. Besides amino acids that form proteins act as precursors of most of the coenzymes, hormones, nucleic acids, and molecules essential for life. Proteins have unique functions that can not be digantika by other nutrients, namely to build and maintain cells and tissues.
Proteins are formed by using only a single polypeptide and is referred to as monomeric proteins formed by several polypeptide for example, hemoglobin is also recognizable as a multimeric protein. Most proteins are enzymes or subunits of enzymes. Other types of proteins play a role in structural or mechanical functions, such as proteins that form the stems and joints cytoskeleton. Proteins involved in the immune system (immune) as an antibody, the control system in the form of the hormone, as a storage component (the seeds) and also in nutrient transport. As one source of nutrients, proteins play a role as a source of amino acids for organisms that are not able to form these amino acids (heterotrophic).
Proteins discovered by Jons Jakob Berzelius in 1838. Biosynthesis of natural proteins with genetic expression. DNA carried the genetic code is transcribed into RNA, which acts as a template for translation is done ribosoma. Until this stage, the protein is still “raw”, are composed of amino acids proteinogenik. Through post-translational mechanisms, it becomes fully functional protein in biology.
In the life of the protein plays an important chemical processes in the body can run well because of the enzyme that serves as a biocatalyst. Besides hemoglobin in red blood beads or erythrocytes that functions as a carrier of oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body, is one type of protein. Similarly, substances that act against bacterial disease called antigens, also a protein.
Proteins from the food we eat everyday can be derived from animal and vegetable. Proteins derived from animal foods such as meat, fish, chicken, eggs, milk, and other so-called animal protein, whereas proteins derived from plants such as beans, tempeh, and tofu is called vegetable protein. Previously, animal protein is considered higher quality than plant protein balanced diet, because it contains amino acids that is more complete.
But the results of recent research proves that the quality of vegetable proteins can be as high quality animal protein, provided that the daily diet varied. Protein is needed for growth, development, muscle formation, the formation of red blood cells, the body’s defense against disease, enzymes and hormones, and synthesis of other body tissues. Proteins are digested into amino acids, which then formed the body of protein in muscles and other tissues. Proteins can serve as an energy source when carbohydrates are consumed as insufficient at the time of strict dieting or at the time of intensive physical exercise. Instead, approximately 15% of total calories consumed from protein.